There is no written evidence which will tell us exactly who has coined this phrase educational technology. Different educationists, professionals and philosophers at different time time intervals have put forwarded different definitions connected with Educational Technology.
Educational technology is some sort of multifaceted and integrated process involving persons, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed per the need and requirement of knowledge for implementing, evaluating, and managing methods of those problems involved in all tasks of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly chatting, has passed through five stages.
The first stage of educational technology is coupled while using aids like charts, maps, symbols, products, specimens and concrete materials. The period educational technology was used as word to audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational technology is of this particular ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction in addition to establishment of sophisticated hardware and application. Use of various audio-visual aids including projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change from the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken with regard to these sophisticated instruments and equipments intended for effective presentation of instructional materials.
The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which inturn led to ‘communication revolution’ for tutorial purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) for education since 1950s also became popular within this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible because of the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided the latest dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning dependant on self-instructional materials and teaching machines blossomed.
The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the technique of system engineering or system approach which targets on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed education, multimedia technologies and the use on the computer in instruction. According to the item, educational technology is a systematic strategy for designing, carrying out and evaluating the entire process of teaching and learning with regard to specific objectives based on research.
Educational technology over the Stone Age, the Bronze
Age, along with the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty on the origin of the term, can be traced here we are at the time of the three-age process periodization of human prehistory; namely this Stone Age, the Bronze Age, along with the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition connected with fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon in addition to utensils from stones and clothing practice were a lot of the simple technological developments of utmost magnitude. A fraction of Stone Age persons developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate collected from one of place to another across the Underwater, by which they developed their first informal education of information about the ocean currents, weather conditions, going practice, astronavigation, and star maps. Over the later Stone Age period (Neolithic time), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a range of hard rocks largely by digging metro tunnels, which can be considered for the reason that first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that despite if appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest along with the establishment of crop farming.
Although Jewel Age cultures left no written files, but archaeological evidences proved their adjust from nomadic life to agricultural relief. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cavern paintings like Altamira Cave in The nation, and other prehistoric art, such for the reason that Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess by Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences and is overtaken by their cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into your appearance of Bronze Age with progress of agriculture, animal domestication, and this adoption of permanent settlements. For most of these practices Bronze Age people further formulated metal smelting, with copper and in the future bronze, an alloy of tin in addition to copper, being the materials of the choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the money necessary for living since iron utensils were tougher and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In most Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was one more period before the development of published scripts.
Educational technology during the
period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology is usually traced back to the time as soon as tribal priests systematized bodies of expertise and ancient cultures invented pictographs or maybe sign writing to record and monitor information. In every stage of people civilization, one can find an instructional technique or number of procedures intended to implement a particular culture that had been also supported by number of brought on and evidences. The more advanced this culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction created to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over decades, each significant shift in educational prices, goals or objectives led to various technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in technology and engineering sported the rise of the ancient cultures. These advances stimulated and educated other societies on this planet to adopt new ways of located and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was a beginning Bronze Age civilization which was found in the northwestern region of the Native american Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished about the Indus River basin of the Indus along with the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley along with the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan along with the western states of modern-day India together with some part of the civilization stretching out upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost component of Balochistan, Iran).
There is a long term controversy to be assured about the language that the Harappan persons spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least is or a pictographic script. The script seems to be have had about 400 basic signals, with lots of variations. People write their script while using the direction generally from right to eventually left. Most of the writing was available on seals and sealings which were probably utilised in trade and official & administrative do the job.
Harappan people had the knowledge on the measuring tools of length, mass, in addition to time. They were the first on this planet to develop a system of consistent weights and measures.
In a study executed by P. N. Rao et ing. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found which the Indus script’s pattern is closer to the next of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis so it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
Using the Chinese Civilization, some of the important techno-offerings from China include paper, beginning seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, in terms of iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, this suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, this raised-relief map, the blast furnace, this propeller, the crossbow, the South Going Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they’ve already given their first step towards trends of educational technology by further culturing unique handmade products of paper as methods of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one point on the list of longest surviving and used languages on this planet. Their script was made up of pictures on the real things like birds, animals, unique tools, etc. These pictures are popularly termed hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which might be known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs that had been discovered and rescued latter on affords the evidence of existence of many sorts of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educative technology during Medieval and Modern Time
Paper and the pulp papermaking process that is developed in China during the beginning 2nd century AD, was carried towards Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean because of the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper generator was also established in Sicily from the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel enhanced the productivity of thread making process into a great extent and when Lynn Light added the spinning wheel with increasing cause of rags, this led to the output of cheap paper, which was a prime consider the development of printing technology.
The invention on the printing press was taken place with approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, some sort of German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental consider the history of educational technology to show the instruction as per the need on the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.
From the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple stuff like the slate, the horn book, this blackboard, and chalk. It was on a a single text book with some illustrations. Educational technology was considered identifiable to simple aids like charts in addition to pictures.
The year 1873 may manifest as a landmark in the early history connected with technology of education or audio-visual knowledge. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level during which an American school won the admiration on the educators for the exhibition of atlases, charts, textbooks and other equipments.
Helen Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator along with the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic have an effect on educational technology through her development of graded materials created to provide for the proper sequencing of intended theme for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s perception of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of any general purpose computing device laid the walls of the modern computer and with 1943, the first computing machine per hi design was constructed by Overseas Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) that the computer functions essentially as a tutor in addition to the Talking Type writer was developed by means of O. K. Moore in 1966. Due to the fact 1974, computers are interestingly used with education in schools, colleges and educational facilities.
In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from its start of school broadcasts with 1920 had maintained rapid pace making sound contribution to formal education. In north america, by 1952, 20 states had this provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this particular time about 98% of the schools in British were equipped with radios and there was clearly regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, some sort of psychologist of Ohio state university formulated a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ with 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science connected with Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the usage of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as methods of doing so.
Although the first practical by using Regular television broadcasts was in Malaysia in 1929 and in 1936 this Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting shows for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is needed for educational purposes.